When Mental-Health Experts, Not Police, Are the First Responders – Wall Street Journal, Nov. 24, 2018 (PDF)
Program in Eugene, Oregon, is viewed as a model for reducing risk of violence

New initiative will fill the gap between police, emergency response and hospital
Siuslaw News – June 16, 2019

Article is about CAHOOTS potentially extending services to western Lane County and the coastal Florence area.

Salem should not yield to Eugene in effort to help the homeless
Salem Statesman Journal, June 2018

Eugene’s CAHOOTS (Crisis Assistance Helping Out On The Streets) could be considered the gold standard.

The non-emergency mobile crisis intervention unit does more than just sober up the homeless. They perform welfare checks and partner with other nonprofits to offer suicide intervention and prevention.

Tim Black, operations coordinator for CAHOOTS, told the Statesman Journal that the city of Eugene and Lane County bought CAHOOTS its mobile mental-health vans.

Portland mental health responders, an alternative to police, usually bring cops
Street Roots, May 2019

A heavy reliance on law enforcement is a departure from the original intent of the Multnomah County-funded Project Respond

Mayor Ted Wheeler Considers Eugene’s Model of Mental Health First Response
January 2019

Whether it’s the high cost of health insurance, the scarcity of state-funded psychiatric treatment beds, or the fear of an institutional setting, Portlanders with mental illnesses—especially those without homes—aren’t getting the kind of care they need. It’s a reality not lost on city officials.

“I’m increasingly of the opinion that we are addressing a major public health epidemic,” Wheeler said last Tuesday, referring to the city’s growing mental health needs. “And I’m not sure we have the right tools in place in able to address it.”

White Bird Clinic’s crisis program expands to new location
May 2019

White Bird Clinic’s crisis program is spreading its wings.

The program, which provides walk-in and around-the-clock phone counseling to thousands of local residents each year, is moving from its decades-old home inside the clinic’s headquarters near Mill Street and 12th Avenue to a larger space along West Seventh Avenue.

The pending move is another indication of the rapid growth of the nonprofit — which provides medical, mental, dental care as well as social services to homeless and low-income people — celebrating its 50th anniversary this year and the number of residents seeking a helping hand.

Local crisis unit in cahoots with more police agencies
December 2018

With its 30th anniversary approaching, CAHOOTS is balancing significant growth, national media exposure and interest from law enforcement departments who seek to replicate its unique model.

When Mental-Health Experts, Not Police, Are the First Responders
Wall Street Journal – December 2018

DOWNLOAD AND READ – When Mental-Health Experts, Not Police, Are the First Responders – WSJ (PDF)


Think Out Loud – OPB, December 2018

The Eugene program CAHOOTS is getting national recognition and has become a model for police response to mental health crises in other states. Instead of sending police officers to mental health crisis calls, CAHOOTS sends a crisis worker and medic. CAHOOTS now responds to nearly 20 percent of emergency calls in Eugene and Springfield. We talk to Tim Black, the operations coordinator for CAHOOTS.

Mental Health Counselors In ‘CAHOOTS’ With Local Police In Eugene, Oregon
WBUR – Boston, March 2019


January 2015

A program that helps people with mental disorders and substance abuse is expanding its services, thanks to new funding from Lane County. Crisis Assistance Helping Out on the Streets (CAHOOTS) has been around for 25 years through the White Bird Clinic in Eugene.



Q13 Fox – June 2019

A new crisis intervention program in the South Sound has hit the streets in an effort to improve Olympia’s downtown core.

It’s called a “Crisis Response Unit,’ and half a dozen behavioral health specialists walk the streets offering a hand up and an ear to those who need it.

Sometimes they give rides to shelters or doctors – and even hand out shoes or snacks.

While the unit doesn’t solely focus on people experiencing homelessness, the majority of their clients are – with that comes referrals for mental or substance abuse treatment for those who want it.

“We don’t run warrants, we don’t snitch on anybody because in this field trust is really important,” said Buck Williams who is part of the team.

The program officially started in April to help keep people in crisis avoid turning a bad situation into something worse.

The city says in the past two months, the team has responded to 700 calls in the downtown core – many times the teams are dispatched by police or find clients on their own.

Olympia’s crisis response team had nearly 700 calls in its first two months
Olympian, June 1, 2019

In its first two months, the unit went on nearly 700 calls, more than half of them initiated by a CRU member, according to numbers provided by the city. Another 73 calls were referred by police or fire crews and 63 came directly from emergency dispatchers.

The vast majority of people they came in contact with were homeless, and the most common presenting problem was related to mental health.

Not every interaction is a crisis. Similar to police officers who work on foot downtown, CRU sees a lot of the same people every day, getting to know their behavior and routines. David Gervais, a CRU member, says he has gotten calls about people who appear to be in crisis when in reality that is a normal day for them.

CRU members can hand out bus passes or give people rides to medical services or to a shelter, for instance. In the back of CRU’s van are granola bars, juice boxes, diapers and blankets; at its office are boxes of shoes and socks and clothes to hand out.

On occasion CRU members carry cigarettes, which can be a good way to get someone to stand still, take a breath and focus their attention.

CRU isn’t meant to be a free ride or a cigarette hookup, but sometimes that is what it takes to de-escalate a situation, says Anne Larsen, outreach services coordinator for the Olympia Police Department who oversees CRU.

More intensive help, such as placement in an inpatient facility, is voluntary, meaning the client needs to want it.

Lenape Valley Foundation – Doylestown PA Brochure


Responding to Individuals Experiencing Mental Health Crises: Police-Involved Programs – April 2018

Police diversion for individuals with mental illness (pre-arrest) – 2018

Mobile Crisis Response – WSIPP 2018

Improving police interventions during mental health-related encounters- past, present and future – Wood 2016

Literature Review – UNM 2016

Street Outreach and Apartment Navigator Initiative – Dallas 2016

Implementation of the Crisis Resolution Team model in adult mental health settings – Wheeler 2015

Street Outreach RFP – New Jersey – 2013

Operating and Managing Street Outreach Services – Wolf 2011

Street Outreach Implementation Plan – Seattle & King County 2011

A Controlled Before-and-After Evaluation of a Mobile Crisis Partnership – Kisely 2010

Outreach and Engagement in Homeless Services – A Review of the Literature – Olivet 2010

Assessment of Street Outreach and Engagement Services for People who are Homeless – Seattle 2010

Mobile Crisis Team Intervention to EnhanceLinkage – Currier 2010

The Experiences of Long-term Unsheltered Homeless Individuals in an Outreach and Housing Placement Program – Jost 2010

Assessment of Street Outreach and Engagement Services for People who are Homeless – Seattle 2010

Developing a Successful Street Outreach Program- Recommendations and Lessons Learned – 2009

Street Outreach Workers- Best Practices and Lessons Learned – 2008

Receipt of Disability through an Outreach Program for Homeless Veterans – Greenberg 2007

Health Status, Service Use, and Costs Among Veterans Receiving Outreach Services in Jail or Community Settings – McGuire 2003

Report and Recommendations Regarding Psychiatric Emergency and Crisis Services – APA Task Force 2002

Assessing the Impact of Community-Based Mobile Crisis Services on Preventing Hospitalization – Guo 2001

Evaluation of a mental health outreach service for homeless families – Tischler 2001

Comparing Outcomes of Major Models of Police Responses to Mental Health Emergencies – 2000

Evaluation of a Mobile Crisis Program – Scott 2000

Evaluation of a Mobile Crisis Program- Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Consumer Satisfaction – Scott 2000

Before 2000

A Perspective on Voluntary and Involuntary Outreach – Tsemberis 1999

Service Delivery Using Consumer Staff in a Mobile Crisis Assessment Program – Lyons 1996

A national survey of mobile crisis services and their evaluation – Geller 1995

Short Versus Longer Term Effectiveness of an Outreach Program for the Homeless Mentally Ill – Bybee 1994

A profile of clients served by a mobile outreach program for homeless mentally ill persons – Slagg 1994


Goals and Principles of Providers Working with People Experiencing Homelessness A Comparison Between Housing First and Traditional Staircase Services in Eight European Countries.pdf

Palo Alto VA Medical Center – Comprehensive Street Outreach – undated


ESG Street Outreach RFP Instructions-FY2018 (00030715-3xD2C80)



Safe Corners brochure – Brockton MA

Grady Hospital Upstream Mobile Crisis Intervention Pilot

Helen Dickey presentation on MCTs

MCIT Outcomes St. Michael_s Hospital Toronto


BEST PRACTICES FOR RURAL STREET OUTREACH – Tennessee Valley Coalition – undated


Shelter from the Storm- Trauma-Informed Care in Homelessness Services Settings – Hopper 2009

How does homeless outreach work – the perspective of the homeless outreach worker – Smith 2012 THESIS

Outcome for psychiatric emergency patients seen by an outreach police-mental health team – Lamb 2001

Report and Recommendations Regarding Psychiatric Emergency and Crisis Services – Allen 2002

Reducing Risk and Improving Results of Police Interactions with the Mental Ill – Womack 2014A Controlled Before-and-After Evaluation of a Mobile Crisis Partnership Between Mental Health and Police Services in Nova Scotia – Kisely 2010

Improving police interventions during mental health-related encounters- past, present and future – Wood & Watson 2017

LSF Health Systems RFP – Florida 2018

A systematic review of co-responder models of police mental health ‘street’ triage – Puntis 2018

The 2017 Strategic Plan 24-7 Crisis Walk-in and Mobile Crisis Team Services – Baltimore 2016

A Descriptive Study of LAPD’s Co-Response Model for Individuals with Mental Illness – Lopez 2016 THESIS


Interagency collaboration models for people with mental ill health in contact with the police- a systematic scoping review – Parker 2018

First-year follow-up of the Psychiatric Emergency Response Team (PAM) in Stockholm County, Sweden- A descriptive study – Bouveng 2017

Specialized Police-Based Mental Health Crisis Response – The First 10 Years of Colorado’s Crisis Intervention Team Implementation – Khalsa 2018

First Responders- Behavioral Health Concerns, Emergency Response, and Trauma – SAMHSA 2018